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Development of phrase recognition test in Kannada language
Hemanth Narayan Shetty, Akshay Mendhakar
July-December 2015, 29(2):21-27
Sentences are rich in redundancy, and therefore, their identification is often facilitated by the context. The use of phrases introduces limited contextual cues into the process of identification and facilitates the evocation of words. Thus, there is a need to develop phrase recognition test to assess identification abilities.
To develop and validate phrase recognition test in Kannada language for assessing speech recognition in noise.
Settings and Design:
Normative research design was utilized.
Subjects and Methods:
A total of 70 phrases in Kannada language were constructed and 67 of them were selected based on familiarity rating. Ten participants each in two groups were involved for the list equivalency and validation.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Repeated measure of analysis of variance was utilized for the lists equivalency and standardization.
Sixty-seven phrases were shortlisted from 70 phrases through familiarity rating. These phrases were embedded in different 5 signal to noise ratios (SNRs) (−9 dB SNR to −1 dB SNR in steps of 2 dB). Analysis of results showed 50% recognition score at ~−5 dB SNR. In addition, the phrases that were too easy and too difficult were eliminated. From the remaining phrases, five lists of 10 phrases each were constructed and compared for their equal intelligibility in noise. The results revealed no significant differences across the phrase lists.
The homogenous five lists of the Kannada phrase recognition test will be useful to assess identification ability of the listeners and hearing aid benefit.
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P300 in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder
Kumari Apeksha, U Ajith Kumar
January-June 2017, 31(1):23-28
Typically, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) show the presence of otoacoustic emissions and elevated/absent auditory brainstem responses. It has been reported that individuals with ANSD, in spite of absent or abnormal ABRs, show auditory cortical potentials. P300 is an endogenous cortical-evoked potential and reflects the changes in the cortical activity when the attention is paid toward the sound. This can effectively quantify the complex cortical sensory-cognitive processing underlying active auditory perception. Therefore, the present study was taken up to investigate the cortical representation of active auditory discrimination skills in individuals with ANSD using P300 response.
Twenty-five individuals with ANSD and 25 individuals with normal hearing sensitivity were the participants. The individuals with ANSD had audiometric thresholds ranging from normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. P300 was recorded using/ba/-/da/stimulus contrast in the oddball paradigm. The latency and the amplitude of P300 response were marked and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Sensitivity and reaction time in identifying the oddball were also measured.
The result showed poor sensitivity and longer reaction time in individuals with ANSD compared to individuals with normal hearing. P300 responses were prolonged in latency and reduced in amplitude in individuals with ANSD. Both the latency and amplitude of P300 response were related to perceptual measures.
P300 response was present in individuals with ANSD but with prolonged latency and reduced amplitude.
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Effect of lowered bone mineral density on the outcomes of audiological tests: A preliminary study
Aditi Gargeshwari, Niraj Kumar Singh, Prawin Kumar, Raghav Hira Jha
January-June 2017, 31(1):29-35
Calcium ions are important for efficient release of neurotransmitters during the transduction process in cochlea. It also plays a pivotal role in recycling of potassium ions. A deficiency in optimal functioning of calcium, which is seen in osteopenia and osteoporosis, could therefore hinder the recycling of K+ ions and cause dysfunction in the neurotransmitter release and thereby sensorineural hearing loss. The deficiency in the bone mineral density (BMD) can also result in microfractures in the middle ear bones and thereby affect its transmission properties. However, few studies have investigated the audiological findings in osteoporosis and none in osteopenia. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of lowered BMD on the outcomes of the audiological tests.
The study incorporated 11 participants with osteoporosis, 12 with osteopenia, and 12 having normal BMD. All the participants underwent detailed structured case history, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance evaluation, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE).
There was a trend toward increase in pure-tone average and speech recognition threshold (SRT) and reduction in speech identification scores in the two clinical groups than the controls; however, this was significant only for SRT (
< 0.05). The osteoporosis group revealed significantly higher proportions of ears with absent acoustic reflexes and DPOAEs than control group and osteopenia group.
The findings point to the detrimental impact of reduction in BMD on the entire auditory periphery. Therefore, the audiological evaluation should consist of tests capable of evaluating the auditory system functioning at different levels when evaluating persons with osteopenia or osteoporosis.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Auditory temporal processing in children with stuttering
Neha S Kekade, Deepa Aniket Valame
July-December 2014, 28(2):41-46
To study auditory temporal processing performance in 30 children with stuttering (CWS) and compare it with 30 age -matched controls.
Materials and Methods:
Auditory temporal processing was compared in two groups of children: With and without stuttering; in the age -range of 9 -14 years using Gap Detection Test (GDT) and Duration Pattern Test (DPT). Ear differences in the gap detection thresholds and duration pattern scores were also studied in both the groups. GDT was carried out using the GDT CD developed by Shivprakash and Manjula (2003) and DPT was carried out using the DPT CD developed by Gauri and Manjula (2003).
No significant difference was seen in the gap detection thresholds and DPT scores between the right ear and left ear scores in typical children and between the scores of the two ears in CWS. The performance of CWS group was significantly poorer as compared to that of typical children in both GDT and DPT. These auditory temporal processing deficits may interfere with the auditory feedback loop that is crucial to fluent speech production. Fluency inducing conditions like slow reading, DAF, or frequency -altered feedback reduce the dependence on auditory feedback thus inducing fluent speech. The results of the present study show that deficient auditory temporal processing in CWS may add to the demands placed on the feedback mechanism thereby increasing stuttering.
As a group, CWS show evidence of compromise in their auditory temporal processing abilities. Tests of temporal processing should be included in assessment of IWS as a pre-therapy assessment tool along with assessment of stuttering.
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Online since 4 Dec, 2013