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   2017| January-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 20, 2017

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P300 in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder
Kumari Apeksha, U Ajith Kumar
January-June 2017, 31(1):23-28
Introduction: Typically, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) show the presence of otoacoustic emissions and elevated/absent auditory brainstem responses. It has been reported that individuals with ANSD, in spite of absent or abnormal ABRs, show auditory cortical potentials. P300 is an endogenous cortical-evoked potential and reflects the changes in the cortical activity when the attention is paid toward the sound. This can effectively quantify the complex cortical sensory-cognitive processing underlying active auditory perception. Therefore, the present study was taken up to investigate the cortical representation of active auditory discrimination skills in individuals with ANSD using P300 response. Methods: Twenty-five individuals with ANSD and 25 individuals with normal hearing sensitivity were the participants. The individuals with ANSD had audiometric thresholds ranging from normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. P300 was recorded using/ba/-/da/stimulus contrast in the oddball paradigm. The latency and the amplitude of P300 response were marked and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Sensitivity and reaction time in identifying the oddball were also measured. Results: The result showed poor sensitivity and longer reaction time in individuals with ANSD compared to individuals with normal hearing. P300 responses were prolonged in latency and reduced in amplitude in individuals with ANSD. Both the latency and amplitude of P300 response were related to perceptual measures. Conclusion: P300 response was present in individuals with ANSD but with prolonged latency and reduced amplitude.
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Establishing ancestry through pedigree of a village with high prevalence of hearing-impaired
Sunil Kumar Raina, Munish Saroch, Geetika Yadav, Ashok Bhardwaj
January-June 2017, 31(1):1-4
Introduction: Population-based surveys into the cause of deafness have consistently shown that a high percentage (50%) of childhood deafness can be attributed to genetic causes. The flip side to genetic testing in population surveys is the operational difficulties associated with carrying it out. The present study was therefore planned with the aim of establishing ancestry through pedigree of a village with high prevalence of hearing-impaired. Materials and Methods: A two-stage study design was used to conduct this study. The first stage involved a house-to-house survey to identify hearing-impaired whereas the second stage involved clinical examination for hearing impairment. Results: Of a total of 2522 individuals studied, 80 were identified as hearing-impaired yielding a crude prevalence of 3.17%. The pedigree analysis of the whole village revealed a common ancestry. Discussion: In the late 20th century, deaf-mutism became a subject of debate and social isolation for Dadhkai villagers. A highlight of Dadhkai has been that its surroundings are not deaf-friendly as is expected. Consequently, as intermarriage flourished, the village community increasingly started resembling each other. This could have led to increase in autosomal recessive inheritance of deafness. Similar studies such as evaluation of six patients from two generations from a large sibship of Turkish ethnicity with double consanguinity in the family support the evidence. Conclusion: Flourishing of intermarriage and thereby consanguinity may be the reason behind high number of hearing impaired in this village. Therefore population based genetic counseling may be the key to prevent the same in future.
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Translation of hearing handicap inventory (adults and elderly) to Kannada
Sindhu Parthasarathy, Jijo Pottackal Mathai
January-June 2017, 31(1):5-22
Introduction: The study aimed to translate two questionnaires on hearing handicap to South Indian language - Kannada. The questionnaires translated were Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) and Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE). Materials and Methods: The procedure of translation included forward translation and back translation done by the experts. The translated questionnaires were administered on 40 individuals with hearing impairment ranging from mild to severe degree. The participants were divided into two groups. In the Group I, there were 20 adults and in the Group II, there were 20 elderly participants. The relation between hearing threshold, Speech Identification Scores (SISs), and handicap scores were found in both the groups. Further, to check internal consistency of the questionnaire Chronbach alpha was obtained. Results: In Group II, there was a significant positive correlation between hearing thresholds and handicap score and a significant negative correlation between SISs and handicap score. However, such a correlation was not observed in Group I. The Chronbach alpha value was found to be 0.90 for HHIA and 0.967 for HHIE showing good reliability and internal consistency. Conclusion: The results implied that the degree of hearing impairment and speech perception abilities determines the degree of handicap in elderly. However, in adults, due to high-listening needs and emotional reaction to hearing impairment there was no such trend. Chronbach alpha value inferred that the questionnaire can be used to classify hearing impaired population based on the degree of their handicap.
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Effect of lowered bone mineral density on the outcomes of audiological tests: A preliminary study
Aditi Gargeshwari, Niraj Kumar Singh, Prawin Kumar, Raghav Hira Jha
January-June 2017, 31(1):29-35
Introduction: Calcium ions are important for efficient release of neurotransmitters during the transduction process in cochlea. It also plays a pivotal role in recycling of potassium ions. A deficiency in optimal functioning of calcium, which is seen in osteopenia and osteoporosis, could therefore hinder the recycling of K+ ions and cause dysfunction in the neurotransmitter release and thereby sensorineural hearing loss. The deficiency in the bone mineral density (BMD) can also result in microfractures in the middle ear bones and thereby affect its transmission properties. However, few studies have investigated the audiological findings in osteoporosis and none in osteopenia. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of lowered BMD on the outcomes of the audiological tests. Method: The study incorporated 11 participants with osteoporosis, 12 with osteopenia, and 12 having normal BMD. All the participants underwent detailed structured case history, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance evaluation, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). Results: There was a trend toward increase in pure-tone average and speech recognition threshold (SRT) and reduction in speech identification scores in the two clinical groups than the controls; however, this was significant only for SRT (P < 0.05). The osteoporosis group revealed significantly higher proportions of ears with absent acoustic reflexes and DPOAEs than control group and osteopenia group. Conclusion: The findings point to the detrimental impact of reduction in BMD on the entire auditory periphery. Therefore, the audiological evaluation should consist of tests capable of evaluating the auditory system functioning at different levels when evaluating persons with osteopenia or osteoporosis.
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