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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
P300 in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder
Kumari Apeksha, U Ajith Kumar
January-June 2017, 31(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_25_17  
Introduction: Typically, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) show the presence of otoacoustic emissions and elevated/absent auditory brainstem responses. It has been reported that individuals with ANSD, in spite of absent or abnormal ABRs, show auditory cortical potentials. P300 is an endogenous cortical-evoked potential and reflects the changes in the cortical activity when the attention is paid toward the sound. This can effectively quantify the complex cortical sensory-cognitive processing underlying active auditory perception. Therefore, the present study was taken up to investigate the cortical representation of active auditory discrimination skills in individuals with ANSD using P300 response. Methods: Twenty-five individuals with ANSD and 25 individuals with normal hearing sensitivity were the participants. The individuals with ANSD had audiometric thresholds ranging from normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. P300 was recorded using/ba/-/da/stimulus contrast in the oddball paradigm. The latency and the amplitude of P300 response were marked and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Sensitivity and reaction time in identifying the oddball were also measured. Results: The result showed poor sensitivity and longer reaction time in individuals with ANSD compared to individuals with normal hearing. P300 responses were prolonged in latency and reduced in amplitude in individuals with ANSD. Both the latency and amplitude of P300 response were related to perceptual measures. Conclusion: P300 response was present in individuals with ANSD but with prolonged latency and reduced amplitude.
  2 2,242 280
Variation in speech perception in noise as a function of age in typically developing children
Nerale Maraiah Mamatha, Asha Yathiraj
January-June 2019, 33(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_17_18  
Introduction: Speech recognition performance has been observed to vary with the age of the listener. Children having difficulty in understanding speech in noisy situations is found to have an adverse effect on learning. The primary aim of the study was to determine the difference in word and phoneme scores in the presence of noise in three age groups of children studying in primary school. The secondary aim was to check whether there was a gender difference within an age group. Materials and Methods: Three groups of typically developing children (≥7 to <8; ≥8 to <9; and ≥9 to <10 years), who were exposed to Kannada from early childhood, were evaluated to determine their speech perception abilities in the presence of noise. Results: Within each age group, no significant difference was observed between gender for word and phoneme scores in all four lists. The word and phoneme scores were similar across the lists within an age group but differed across age groups for all lists. The older children outperformed the younger children. Conclusion: The study indicated that with increase in age, word and phoneme recognition scores improve. However, within an age group, children obtained similar word and phoneme scores across the four lists, indicating the equivalence of the lists in the presence of noise. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in word and phoneme scores between the males and females for all lists within each age group.
  2 1,753 216
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Auditory temporal processing in children with stuttering
Neha S Kekade, Deepa Aniket Valame
July-December 2014, 28(2):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-2131.162427  
Purpose: To study auditory temporal processing performance in 30 children with stuttering (CWS) and compare it with 30 age -matched controls. Materials and Methods: Auditory temporal processing was compared in two groups of children: With and without stuttering; in the age -range of 9 -14 years using Gap Detection Test (GDT) and Duration Pattern Test (DPT). Ear differences in the gap detection thresholds and duration pattern scores were also studied in both the groups. GDT was carried out using the GDT CD developed by Shivprakash and Manjula (2003) and DPT was carried out using the DPT CD developed by Gauri and Manjula (2003). Results: No significant difference was seen in the gap detection thresholds and DPT scores between the right ear and left ear scores in typical children and between the scores of the two ears in CWS. The performance of CWS group was significantly poorer as compared to that of typical children in both GDT and DPT. These auditory temporal processing deficits may interfere with the auditory feedback loop that is crucial to fluent speech production. Fluency inducing conditions like slow reading, DAF, or frequency -altered feedback reduce the dependence on auditory feedback thus inducing fluent speech. The results of the present study show that deficient auditory temporal processing in CWS may add to the demands placed on the feedback mechanism thereby increasing stuttering. Conclusions: As a group, CWS show evidence of compromise in their auditory temporal processing abilities. Tests of temporal processing should be included in assessment of IWS as a pre-therapy assessment tool along with assessment of stuttering.
  2 3,868 427
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of phrase recognition test in Kannada language
Hemanth Narayan Shetty, Akshay Mendhakar
July-December 2015, 29(2):21-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-2131.185976  
Context: Sentences are rich in redundancy, and therefore, their identification is often facilitated by the context. The use of phrases introduces limited contextual cues into the process of identification and facilitates the evocation of words. Thus, there is a need to develop phrase recognition test to assess identification abilities. Aims: To develop and validate phrase recognition test in Kannada language for assessing speech recognition in noise. Settings and Design: Normative research design was utilized. Subjects and Methods: A total of 70 phrases in Kannada language were constructed and 67 of them were selected based on familiarity rating. Ten participants each in two groups were involved for the list equivalency and validation. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measure of analysis of variance was utilized for the lists equivalency and standardization. Results: Sixty-seven phrases were shortlisted from 70 phrases through familiarity rating. These phrases were embedded in different 5 signal to noise ratios (SNRs) (−9 dB SNR to −1 dB SNR in steps of 2 dB). Analysis of results showed 50% recognition score at ~−5 dB SNR. In addition, the phrases that were too easy and too difficult were eliminated. From the remaining phrases, five lists of 10 phrases each were constructed and compared for their equal intelligibility in noise. The results revealed no significant differences across the phrase lists. Conclusions: The homogenous five lists of the Kannada phrase recognition test will be useful to assess identification ability of the listeners and hearing aid benefit.
  1 5,276 447
Turkish translation, reliability and validity of the amsterdam inventory for auditory disability and handicap
Banu Mujdeci, Ozgu Inal, M Didem Turkyilmaz, Kenan Kose
July-December 2016, 30(2):40-46
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_1_17  
Introduction: We aimed to compose a Turkish version of Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (T-AIADH) and investigate validity and reliability of T-AIADH. Methods: A total of 240 individuals were included in the study. They were divided into two groups. Individuals with hearing disability constituted the study group (n = 120), and 120 normal-hearing individuals constituted the control group. Results: The reliability analysis of 30 items in all study population yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. All Cronbach's alpha coefficients obtained in 5 domains of T-AIADH were above 0.90. For 5-domain scores, intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated very good test–retest reliability. There were statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of the mean scores of each of the 30 items in the questionnaire (P < 0.01). The mean scores of each of the five domains of T-AIADH were statistically significantly different between the study and control groups (P < 0.01). Criterion analysis showed positive correlations between the domain scores and the average of hearing thresholds (0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, and 4 kHz) in the study group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The T-AIADH has a high internal consistency and test–retest reliability. T-AIADH can differentiate the individuals with hearing loss from the individuals with normal hearing. T-AIADH is composed of easily understandable questions, and it may be used to analyze hearing disability for screening purposes or as an adjunctive test to audiological tests in Turkish-speaking patients.
  1 3,172 413
Establishing ancestry through pedigree of a village with high prevalence of hearing-impaired
Sunil Kumar Raina, Munish Saroch, Geetika Yadav, Ashok Bhardwaj
January-June 2017, 31(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_15_16  
Introduction: Population-based surveys into the cause of deafness have consistently shown that a high percentage (50%) of childhood deafness can be attributed to genetic causes. The flip side to genetic testing in population surveys is the operational difficulties associated with carrying it out. The present study was therefore planned with the aim of establishing ancestry through pedigree of a village with high prevalence of hearing-impaired. Materials and Methods: A two-stage study design was used to conduct this study. The first stage involved a house-to-house survey to identify hearing-impaired whereas the second stage involved clinical examination for hearing impairment. Results: Of a total of 2522 individuals studied, 80 were identified as hearing-impaired yielding a crude prevalence of 3.17%. The pedigree analysis of the whole village revealed a common ancestry. Discussion: In the late 20th century, deaf-mutism became a subject of debate and social isolation for Dadhkai villagers. A highlight of Dadhkai has been that its surroundings are not deaf-friendly as is expected. Consequently, as intermarriage flourished, the village community increasingly started resembling each other. This could have led to increase in autosomal recessive inheritance of deafness. Similar studies such as evaluation of six patients from two generations from a large sibship of Turkish ethnicity with double consanguinity in the family support the evidence. Conclusion: Flourishing of intermarriage and thereby consanguinity may be the reason behind high number of hearing impaired in this village. Therefore population based genetic counseling may be the key to prevent the same in future.
  1 2,319 255
Noise measurement across different land-use patterns
Sreeraj Konadath, Akshay Mahadeva, Suma Chatni
July-December 2019, 33(2):55-62
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_26_18  
Introduction: In the current scenario, with noise exposure having serious effects on the well-being of an individual, it becomes necessary to monitor the noise levels in the environment and keep them under the permissible limits. The present research was aimed to measure and compare noise levels in different land-use patterns and also to identify a minimum duration required to obtain a stabilized LAeq values in environmental noise measurement. Methods: Noise measurements were carried out across residential, commercial, sensitive, and mixed land-use patterns during morning and afternoon time frames. The obtained results were represented using isopleth noise maps. Results: It was noted that noise levels exceeded the prescribed limits in all the four land-use categories. The greatest level of noise was noted in commercial areas followed by mixed, sensitive, and residential land-use types. Significant variations in LAeq values were noted only up to 10 min of noise measurement, and measured noise levels were stabilized beyond 10-min time mark in all the land-use categories. Conclusion: The higher noise levels recorded in the city would bring about adverse health effects on city dwellers in the long run, thus calling for strict law enforcement related to monitoring of noise levels and keeping them in check.
  1 2,054 312
Effect of lowered bone mineral density on the outcomes of audiological tests: A preliminary study
Aditi Gargeshwari, Niraj Kumar Singh, Prawin Kumar, Raghav Hira Jha
January-June 2017, 31(1):29-35
DOI:10.4103/jisha.JISHA_4_17  
Introduction: Calcium ions are important for efficient release of neurotransmitters during the transduction process in cochlea. It also plays a pivotal role in recycling of potassium ions. A deficiency in optimal functioning of calcium, which is seen in osteopenia and osteoporosis, could therefore hinder the recycling of K+ ions and cause dysfunction in the neurotransmitter release and thereby sensorineural hearing loss. The deficiency in the bone mineral density (BMD) can also result in microfractures in the middle ear bones and thereby affect its transmission properties. However, few studies have investigated the audiological findings in osteoporosis and none in osteopenia. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of lowered BMD on the outcomes of the audiological tests. Method: The study incorporated 11 participants with osteoporosis, 12 with osteopenia, and 12 having normal BMD. All the participants underwent detailed structured case history, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance evaluation, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). Results: There was a trend toward increase in pure-tone average and speech recognition threshold (SRT) and reduction in speech identification scores in the two clinical groups than the controls; however, this was significant only for SRT (P < 0.05). The osteoporosis group revealed significantly higher proportions of ears with absent acoustic reflexes and DPOAEs than control group and osteopenia group. Conclusion: The findings point to the detrimental impact of reduction in BMD on the entire auditory periphery. Therefore, the audiological evaluation should consist of tests capable of evaluating the auditory system functioning at different levels when evaluating persons with osteopenia or osteoporosis.
  1 2,132 254
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